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With regard to the Anglo-Italian Protocol of 1891, Great Britain and Italy delineated their respective “spheres of influence in north-east Africa.” This agreement allowed the Uk to retain control of the flow of sources from the Tekeze River (Atbara). The 1959 agreement was concluded between independent states. What distinguishes this agreement from its predecessor, the 1929 agreement, is that it refers to the right of appeal of these agreements. What distinguishes this agreement from its predecessor, the 1929 agreement, is that it refers to the right of claim of the other states of the basin in the future. It is interesting to note that the contracting parties wanted to take control of the future share of the other states in the basin. In this attempt, they decided that “as soon as other countries along the upstream claim a share of the waters of the Nile, the two countries (Egypt and Sudan) jointly investigate these allegations and share a common vision of them.” This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto higher projects on the Nile that would affect its share of water. The 1959 agreement does not take into account the interests of all riparian countries, as it is bilateral and remains effective only among themselves. The agreement is therefore at odds with the fundamental principles of the use of international water resources. The negotiation process, which culminated in 1959 with the agreement on the full use of Nile waters, was initiated in the 1940s, when the Sudanese rejected the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian Agreement, which allowed Sudan to use only what had “remained” as soon as Egypt`s needs had been fully met.

Various Sudanese politicians have insisted that states that do not participate in an agreement be free to do what is in their national interest, despite respect for international law, Ethiopia retains the right to use nile waters from its territory. No foreign force can tell her to do so and that she has never agreed on an issue to stick to it. The signed framework agreement governs relations between the neighbouring countries for the harmonious exploitation, conservation and protection of the Nile`s common water resources. The CFA is expected to enter into force once two-thirds of the neighbouring countries have ratified the agreement. However, given that the new South Sudan has not yet signed the framework with the Democratic Republic of Congo, the prospect of completion seems to take time. In 1959, Egypt and an independent Sudan signed a bilateral agreement that effectively strengthened the provisions of the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty. The 1959 agreement increased water allocations for both Egypt and Sudan – Egypt`s water allocation increased from 48 billion cubic meters to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s from 4 billion cubic meters to 18.5 billion cubic meters, bringing 10 billion cubic meters to infiltration and evaporation. Finally, the agreement provided that if the average water yield increased, the increase in yields would be evenly distributed between the two downstream riparian countries (for example). Egypt and Sudan). The 1959 agreement, like the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929, does not take into account the water needs of other riparian countries, including Ethiopia, whose highlands provide more than 80 per cent of the water flowing into the Nile.